Modals | Must, Should, Have to

Ann is asking Tom for advice on going to Russia. It is her first time to travel abroad.

Tom: Hey Ann, you look worried. What’s up?

Ann: Well I 'm a little worried about going abroad for the first time. It’s Moscow and I’m a bit unsure of things. You’ve been there, haven’t you? Can you tell me what I need, or give me some advice or something?

Tom: Yeah I have been there a few times. Ahm, well you must have a passport, but I guess you have one of those.

Ann: Haha, very funny.

Tom: Seriously, though. You have to get a visa. But that's easy to get down at the embassy but don’t worry you don’t have to get any vaccinations.

Ann: Well that’s a relief. Hey, is there anything else I need to know? I'm a little nervous.

Tom: Well, It’s winter and Moscow gets very cold, so you should definitley pack some warm clothes.

Ann: Yeah, that’s one thing I'm not looking forward to. I really don't like the cold.

Tom: But you can’t just sit in your room staying warm. You have to get out. Actually, you should use the subway to get around. That will keep you out of the freezing wind and its quite interesting too.

Ann: OK, yeah, well, you’ve given me a bit to think about. Thanks.

Grammar Notes

Point 1: We use 'must' to stress necessity for very important things.
  1. You must have a driving license before you take the car out.
  2. Must I have a passport to travel abroad?
Point 2: We use 'should' to make suggestions.
  1. You should take some warm clothes.
  2. You shouldn’t forget to take a hat.
Point 3: We use 'have to' for necessity and to stress a suggestion.
  1. You have to get a visa. (necessity)
  2. You have to get out of your room! (strong suggestion)
Point 4: If a verb follows a modal verb, it will always be in the base form (V1).
  1. You have to get a visa.
  2. You should remember to see my aunt.
Answer these questions about the interview.

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Vocabulary Challenge

Complete the sentences with the words below.
must • should • have • shouldn't • must not
  1. You repeat this to anyone. It is a secret.
  2. You take an umbrella. It might rain.
  3. You to get a visa.
  4. You pay in cash. They do not take credit cards.
  5. You smoke. It is bad for your health.